Ginger is a flowering plant that originated in Southeast Asia. It’s among the healthiest (and most delicious) spices on the planet.
It belongs to the Zingiberaceae family, and it’s closely related to turmeric, cardamom, and galangal.
The rhizome (underground part of the stem) is the part commonly used as a spice. It’s often called ginger root or, simply, ginger.
Ginger can be used fresh, dried, powdered, or as an oil or juice. It’s a very common ingredient in recipes. It’s sometimes added to processed foods and cosmetics.
Here are 11 health benefits of ginger that are supported by scientific research.
Ginger has a very long history of use in various forms of traditional and alternative medicine. It’s been used to aid digestion, reduce nausea, and help fight the flu and common cold, to name a few of its purposes.
The unique fragrance and flavor of ginger come from its natural oils, the most important of which is gingerol.
Gingerol is the main bioactive compound in ginger. It’s responsible for much of ginger’s medicinal properties.
Gingerol has powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, according to research. For instance, it may help reduce oxidative stress, which is the result of having an excess amount of free radicals in the body (1Trusted Source, 2Trusted Source).
SUMMARY Ginger is high in gingerol, a substance with powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
Ginger appears to be highly effective against nausea (3Trusted Source).
It may help relieve nausea and vomiting for people undergoing certain types of surgery. Ginger may also help chemotherapy-related nausea, but larger human studies are needed (4Trusted Source, 5Trusted Source, 6Trusted Source, 7).
However, it may be the most effective when it comes to pregnancy-related nausea, such as morning sickness.
According to a review of 12 studies that included a total of 1,278 pregnant women, 1.1–1.5 grams of ginger can significantly reduce symptoms of nausea.
However, this review concluded that ginger had no effect on vomiting episodes (8Trusted Source).
Although ginger is considered safe, talk to your doctor before taking large amounts if you’re pregnant.
It’s recommended that pregnant women who are close to labor or who’ve had miscarriages avoid ginger (9Trusted Source).
SUMMARY Just 1–1.5 grams of ginger can help prevent various types of nausea, including chemotherapy-related nausea, nausea after surgery, and morning sickness.
Ginger may play a role in weight loss, according to studies conducted in humans and animals.
A 2019 literature review concluded that ginger supplementation significantly reduced body weight, the waist-hip ratio, and the hip ratio in people with overweight or obesity (10Trusted Source).
A 2016 study of 80 women with obesity found that ginger could also help reduce body mass index (BMI) and blood insulin levels. High blood insulin levels are associated with obesity.
Study participants received relatively high daily doses — 2 grams — of ginger powder for 12 weeks (11, 12).
A 2019 literature review of functional foods also concluded that ginger had a very positive effect on obesity and weight loss. However, additional studies are needed (13).
The evidence in favor of ginger’s role in helping prevent obesity is stronger in animal studies. Rats and mice who consumed ginger water or ginger extract consistently saw decreases in their body weight, even in instances where they’d also been fed high-fat diets (14Trusted Source, 15, 16).
Ginger’s ability to influence weight loss may be related to certain mechanisms, such as its potential to help increase the number of calories burned or reduce inflammation (13, 16).
SUMMARY According to studies in animals and humans, ginger may help improve weight-related measurements. These include body weight and the waist-hip ratio.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common health problem.
It involves degeneration of the joints in the body, leading to symptoms such as joint pain and stiffness.
One literature review found that people who used ginger to treat their OA saw significant reductions in pain and disability (17).
Only mild side effects, such as a dissatisfaction with the taste of ginger, were observed. However, the taste of ginger, along with stomach upset, still prompted nearly 22% of the study participants to drop out.
Study participants received between 500 milligrams (mg) and 1 gram of ginger each day for anywhere from 3 to 12 weeks. A majority of them had been diagnosed with OA of the knee (17).
Another study from 2011 found that a combination of topical ginger, mastic, cinnamon, and sesame oil can help reduce pain and stiffness in people with OA of the knee (18Trusted Source).
SUMMARY There are some studies showing ginger to be effective at reducing symptoms of osteoarthritis, especially osteoarthritis of the knee.
This area of research is relatively new, but ginger may have powerful anti-diabetic properties.
In a 2015 study of 41 participants with type 2 diabetes, 2 grams of ginger powder per day lowered fasting blood sugar by 12% (19Trusted Source).
It also dramatically improved hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a marker for long-term blood sugar levels. HbA1c was reduced by 10% over a period of 12 weeks.
There was also a 28% reduction in the Apolipoprotein B/ApolipoproteinA-I ratio and a 23% reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a byproduct of oxidative stress. A high ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and high MDA levels are both major risk factors for heart disease (19Trusted Source).
However, keep in mind that this was just one small study. The results are incredibly impressive, but they need to be confirmed in larger studies before any recommendations can be made.
In somewhat encouraging news, a 2019 literature review also concluded that ginger significantly reduced HbA1c in people with type 2 diabetes. However, it also found that ginger had no effect on fasting blood sugar (20).
SUMMARY Ginger has been shown to lower blood sugar levels and improve various heart disease risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes.
Chronic indigestion is characterized by recurrent pain and discomfort in the upper part of the stomach.
It’s believed that delayed emptying of the stomach is a major driver of indigestion. Interestingly, ginger has been shown to speed up emptying of the stomach (21Trusted Source).
People with functional dyspepsia, which is indigestion with no known cause, were given either ginger capsules or a placebo in a small 2011 study. One hour later, they were all given soup.
It took 12.3 minutes for the stomach to empty in people who received ginger. It took 16.1 minutes in those who received the placebo (22Trusted Source).
These effects have also been seen in people without indigestion. In a 2008 study by some members of the same research team, 24 healthy individuals were given ginger capsules or a placebo. They were all given soup an hour later.
Consuming ginger as opposed to a placebo significantly accelerated emptying of the stomach. It took 13.1 minutes for people who received ginger and 26.7 minutes for people who received the placebo (23Trusted Source).
SUMMARY Ginger appears to speed up emptying of the stomach, which can be beneficial for people with indigestion and related stomach discomfort.
Dysmenorrhea refers to pain felt during the menstrual cycle.
One of the traditional uses of ginger is for pain relief, including menstrual pain.
In a 2009 study, 150 women were instructed to take either ginger or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the first 3 days of the menstrual period.
The three groups received four daily doses of either ginger powder (250 mg), mefenamic acid (250 mg), or ibuprofen (400 mg). Ginger managed to reduce pain as effectively as the two NSAIDs (24Trusted Source).
More recent studies have also concluded that ginger is more effective than a placebo and equally as effective as drugs such as mefenamic acid and acetaminophen/caffeine/ibuprofen (Novafen) (25, 26, 27Trusted Source).
While these findings are promising, higher-quality studies with larger numbers of study participants are still needed (27Trusted Source).
SUMMARY Ginger appears to be very effective against menstrual pain when taken at the beginning of the menstrual period.
High levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol are linked to an increased risk of heart disease.
The foods you eat can have a strong influence on LDL levels.
In a 2018 study of 60 people with hyperlipidemia, the 30 people who received 5 grams of ginger-pasted powder each day saw their LDL (bad) cholesterol levels drop by 17.4% over a 3-month period (28).
While the drop in LDL is impressive, it’s important to consider that study participants received very high doses of ginger.
Many cited a bad taste in the mouth as their reason for dropping out of an OA study where they received doses of 500 mg–1 gram of ginger (17).
The doses taken during the hyperlipidemia study are 5–10 times higher. It’s likely that most people may have difficulty taking a 5-gram dose for long enough to see results (28).
In an older study from 2008, people who received 3 grams of ginger powder (in capsule form) each day also saw significant reductions in most cholesterol markers. Their LDL (bad) cholesterol levels dropped by 10% over 45 days (29).
These findings are supported by a study in rats with hypothyroidism or diabetes. Ginger extract lowered LDL (bad) cholesterol to a similar extent as the cholesterol-lowering drug atorvastatin (30Trusted Source).
Study subjects from all 3 studies also experienced drops in total cholesterol. Participants in the 2008 study, as well as the lab rats, also saw reductions in their blood triglycerides (28, 29, 30Trusted Source).
SUMMARY There’s some evidence, in both humans and animals, that ginger can lead to significant reductions in LDL (bad) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and blood triglyceride levels.
Ginger has been studied as an alternative remedy for several forms of cancer.
The anti-cancer properties are attributed to gingerol, which is found in large amounts in raw ginger. A form known as -gingerol is viewed as especially powerful (31Trusted Source, 32).
In a 28-day study of individuals at normal risk for colorectal cancer, 2 grams of ginger extract per day significantly reduced pro-inflammatory signaling molecules in the colon (33).
However, a follow-up study in individuals at a high risk for colorectal cancer didn’t produce the same results (34Trusted Source).
There’s some evidence, albeit limited, that ginger may be effective against other gastrointestinal cancers such as pancreatic cancer and liver cancer (35Trusted Source, 36Trusted Source).
It may be effective against breast cancer and ovarian cancer as well. In general, more research is needed (37Trusted Source, 38Trusted Source).
SUMMARY Ginger contains the substance gingerol, which appears to have protective effects against cancer. However, more studies are needed.
Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation can accelerate the aging process.
They’re believed to be among the key drivers of Alzheimer’s disease and age-related cognitive decline.
Some animal studies suggest that the antioxidants and bioactive compounds in ginger can inhibit inflammatory responses that occur in the brain (39Trusted Source).
There’s also some evidence that ginger can help enhance brain function directly. In a 2012 study of healthy middle-aged women, daily doses of ginger extract were shown to improve reaction time and working memory (40Trusted Source).
In addition, numerous studies in animals show that ginger can help protect against age-related decline in brain function (41Trusted Source, 42Trusted Source, 43Trusted Source).
SUMMARY Animal studies suggest that ginger can protect against age-related damage to the brain. It can also help improve brain function in middle-aged women.
Gingerol can help lower the risk of infections.
In fact, ginger extract can inhibit the growth of many different types of bacteria (44Trusted Source, 45Trusted Source).
According to a 2008 study, it’s very effective against the oral bacteria linked to gingivitis and periodontitis. These are both inflammatory gum diseases (46Trusted Source).
Fresh ginger may also be effective against the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common cause of respiratory infections (47Trusted Source).
SUMMARY Ginger may fight harmful bacteria and viruses, which could reduce your risk for infections.
The bottom line
Ginger is loaded with nutrients and bioactive compounds that have powerful benefits for your body and brain.
It’s one of the very few superfoods actually worthy of that term.